An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the non living components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. As ecosystems are defined by the network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment, they can be of any size but usually encompass specific, limited spaces (although some scientists say that the entire planet is an ecosystem).
The components of ecosystem are as follow:
- Inorganic Substances: These are materials which are built up to form complex compounds that makes up the body of living organism. Eg : Carbon, Nitogen , Carbon Dioxide and water etc.
- Organic Substances : It includes the components of carbon that acts as a link between living and non living parts of an ecosystem. They are passed into Living organism by feeding.
- Climate: It includes Different factors like Temperature, Sunlight, Humidity and Rainfall. They are determined by the abundance of organisms and their habitats and also determines which organism to survive.
- Producers: These are organisms which are autotrophic in nature . They manufacture food from Carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight.
- Consumers: They are heterotrophic Organisms mainly animals that use organic matter from other organisms.
- Decomposers: They are also called as Saprotrophs and mainly consists of Bacteria and fungi , They feed on Protoplasm of an organism.